TLAXCALA تلاكسكالا Τλαξκάλα Тлакскала la red internacional de traductores por la diversidad lingüística le réseau international des traducteurs pour la diversité linguistique the international network of translators for linguistic diversity الشبكة العالمية للمترجمين من اجل التنويع اللغوي das internationale Übersetzernetzwerk für sprachliche Vielfalt a rede internacional de tradutores pela diversidade linguística la rete internazionale di traduttori per la diversità linguistica la xarxa internacional dels traductors per a la diversitat lingüística översättarnas internationella nätverk för språklig mångfald شبکه بین المللی مترجمین خواهان حفظ تنوع گویش το διεθνής δίκτυο των μεταφραστών για τη γλωσσική ποικιλία международная сеть переводчиков языкового разнообразия Aẓeḍḍa n yemsuqqlen i lmend n uṭṭuqqet n yilsawen dilsel çeşitlilik için uluslararası çevirmen ağı la internacia reto de tradukistoj por la lingva diverso

 22/09/2017 Tlaxcala, the international network of translators for linguistic diversity Tlaxcala's Manifesto  
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 Taskint n Tlaxcala 
Taskint n Tlaxcala
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Taskint n Tlaxcala

Tlaxcala d aẓeḍḍa i lmend n uṭṭuqqet n yilsawen deg umaḍal, tessebded-it-id yiwet n terbaεt tamecṭuḥt n yimeγnasen (militants) n Internet ay yemyussanen s Internet yerna gren tamawt εedlen deg tmuγliwin-nsen i wakk-n ad ssiwḍen γer yeswan, tirga ed wuguren ay ten-icerken. Aẓeḍḍa n terbaεt-nsen yimγur s tγawla, yerna llan deg-s ass-a 74 n yimaslaḍen (membres) ay d-yettarun s 15 n yilsawen. Taskint-a, ay qeblen akk-n ma llan, d tin ay d-yesskanen tafelsuft ay ten-icerken.

Akk ilsawen n umaḍal yessefk ad ttekkin yerna ttekkayen, deg tidet, deg lebni n tegmat gar yemdanen. Iles ur yelli, akk-n ttxemmimen kra, d taγessa kan n tjeṛṛumt (structure grammaticale), d tagrumma (ensemble) n wawalen ay itteddun s lqanun n tseddast (syntaxe), wanag yessefk ad d-nernu : iles d asnulfu n lmeεnat ay yebnan γef yiḥulfan-nneγ. S way-a, nettwali, nfehhem yerna nessawal-d γef umaḍal-nneγ γef leḥsab n tegnit ay deg nella, γef leḥsab n yiḥulfan-nneγ udmawanen (personnels), n tmura ay deg d-nekker yerna nezdeγ yerna γef leḥsab n tegnit tasertit (politique) ay deg nedder. Γef ljal n way-a, ur yelli yiles ay yeṭṭfen talemmast, ur imal akk-in wala akk-a, yerna ilsawen akk γer-sen ”tangalt tajinit” (code génétique), d lateṛ n yidelsan wuγur qqnen. Talatinit yellan d iles amezwaru n Umenkud (Empire), tewweḍ γer tqacuct s weεfas γef way-n ay d-yeqqimen seg yilsawen ay tessaweḍ ad ten-terẓ asmi ay llan yiserdasen n Ṛṛuman ssemγaren Amenkud-nsen (Empire) deg wenẓul (sud) n Tuṛuft (Europe), deg ugafa (nord) n Tefriqt ed Ccerq Alemmas. Sakk-in, ur yelli d ay-n yessewhamen mi ara nẓer taspenyulit, yelli-s n tlatinit, d nettat ay yesnegren ilsawen n yiγerfan (ccuεub) niḍen, wid yettwarnan deg Temrikt.

Amenkud (Empire) ed yiles-nnes tteddun dima afus deg ufus, yerna d ay-n ibanen ur zmiren ad ddren ed ad nnernin ala ma snegren wiyaḍ. Amenkud ed yiles-nnes ttagin wiyaḍ. S kra n yiles n umenkud (langue impériale) yettarra iman-nnes d netta ay γef yebna umezruy (ttarix), d netta ay d-iḥekkun amezruy s tmuγli-nnes yerna imeḥḥu (neγ iεerreḍ ad yemḥu) timuγliwin n yilsawen ay yeḥqer. Amezruy unṣ̣ib (officiel) n yal amenkud werjin yettili zeddig seg lbaṭel ed lekdeb, wanag dima iεerreḍ ad d-yessefhem, γas s lekdeb, ay-n ay iga umenkud iḍelli, i wakk-n ad d-yebnu tamuγli-nnes γef umaḍal n uzekka, akk-n ay t-yettwali netta. 

Yiwen ur yeẓri ass-a ay-n ay iεeddan, ay-n umi ḥulfan yiγerfan (ccuεub) ay yerna Umenkud n Ṛṛuman, imi ur d-yettwaru wacemma γef lexṣ̣ara-nsen ay d-yeglan s nnger n yidelsan-nsen. Maca ilsawen n yiγerfan n Temrikt, ay yerna Umenkud aspenyuli, jjan-d cchadat γef way-n ay yekkan fell-asen. Deg wezgen wis sin n lqern wis 16, cwiṭṭ kan sdeffir ma kecmen Yespenyuliyen γer Mexico, Agmat Bernardino de Sahagún yejmeε-d ay-n umi qqaren ass-aAmmud n Firenze, d cchada anda ay yesdukkel timucuha s tnahuatlt (d iles n Waztikiyen iqburen, mazal ssawalen-t deg Miksik) ed tugniwin (tteṣ̣wirat) ay d-yesskanen timetti ed yedles n Waztikiyen sdat ad ten-id-kecmen Yespenyuliyen. Cchada tis snat d tin ay d-nufa deg Lienzo de Tlaxcala, d ammud ay d-yejmeε yiwen n wemsahar (métis) isem-nnes Diego Muñoz de Camargo, yerna cchada-a d tin ay yettruẓun tamezwarut-nni, imi ay-n ay d-iḥekku Muñoz de Camargo yebna-t γef tekla (peintures) ay d-gan lejdud-nnes – ihaggaren (nobles) n Tlaxcala – ay d-iweṣ̣fen amek ay d-yewweḍ Hernán Cortés ed wamek ay teγli Tenochtitlan, tamaneγt n Umenkud Aztiki, tin ay hudden yimaslaken (conquérants) ispenyuliyen yerna bnan deg wemkan-nnes tamdint n Mexico. Deg tallit-nni, Tlaxcala tella d taxṣ̣imt n Umenkud Aztiki n Tenochtitlan, yerna asmi ay yewweḍ Cortés γer Miksik, Tlaxcala tεawen-it akk-n ad yerẓ Tenochtitlan, maca imezdaγen n Tlaxcala ur faqen asmi ay gan ay-a xedεen ula d iman-nsen, imi Amenkud Aspenyuli ay d-ilulen s uγelluy n Tenochtitlan, yerra seddaw n uzaglu-nnes akk iγerfan ineṣ̣liyen wuγur yekcem – ama d wid yellan d imeddukkal, neγ d wid yellan iεdawen n Uqacuc Aspenyuli, yerna ay-a yessaweḍ-iten armi ay qrib sṛuḥen akk idelsan ed yilsawen-nsen. 

Ass-a, tazmert n Umenkud (Empire) tella gar yifassen n Yiwunak Yeddukklen n Temrikt, yerna iles-nnes unṣ̣ib d tanglizit. Tanglizit, am wakk ilsawen n yimenkuden, tettḥettim-d lqanun-nnes γef medden. Anekcum n tanglizit γer waṭas n tmura ed tmiwa yessaweḍ aṭas n medden ad sṛuḥen ilsawen ay yes ssawalen yal ass, neγ γas kra ur ten-sṛuḥen, atni la tteddun γer way-nni. Filippin ed Puerto Rico d sin kan n yimedyaten (lemtul) gar wiyaḍ. Deg Tefriqt n ddaw n Uneẓruf (Ṣṣ̣eḥra), cciεa n tkellax ay yettunefken i tanglizit, tafṛensist, tapuṛtugalit ed yilsawen n teγwalt (communication) ay yessawal umur ameqran deg medden deg kra seg tmura-a d ay-n ay d-igellun s nnger n yiwen n yiles aneṣ̣li yal snat n ledwaṛ, γef leḥsab n UNESCO.

D tidet, deg tallit-a ay deg yessefk ad tili teγwalt (communication) gar yemdanen ed tmura n umaḍal akk, ma sεan yemdanen yiwen n yiles ara yessifessen tamussni gar-asen ur yelli d ay-n n diri, maca iles-a yezmer ad yeqqel yettḍurru ma yella yessawaḍ tasnakta (idéologie) ara t-id-yesseknen yif yerna yugar ilsawen niḍen, ama s tmeεmada neγ ala, yerna iḥeqqer ilsawen niḍen ay yellan ”seddaw n tecḍaḍt”-nnes, meḥsub akk ilsawen niḍen. Tikerrist n temγer (complexe de supériorité) ay itteddun dima ed kra n yiles n umenkud (empire) neγ iles ay yeqqnen γer kra n umenkud teẓẓa deg wul n yiles-nni, ur yezmir ad yemsefraq yid-s, yerna ula d imeγnasen yessawalen s tanglizit yerna ttnaγen i lmend n umaḍal yifen win n wass-a, tikkwal ttxemmimen iles-nsen yif wiyaḍ : ala aḥric d amecṭuḥ mliḥ seg way-n ay nettaf deg yimediaten-nsen (médias) ay d-yettussuqqlen seg yilsawen yellan ”seddaw tecḍaḍt” n tanglizit, wanag amur ameqran deg way-n d-ssuffuγen yettwaru s tanglizit deg laṣ̣el-nnes, ur s kra n yiles niḍen. Ay-n ay d-yettwarun s tanglizit yerna ssuqqulen-t-id γer yilsawen niḍen yugar s waṭas ay-n ay d-yettwarun s yilsawen niḍen yerna yettussuqqul-d γer tanglizit. Aql-aγ neḍlem akk imi ay neqbel ad yeqqim lbaṭel am wa armi d ass-a.

Tlaxcala d aẓeḍḍa n yemsuqqlen ay iqeddcen i lmend n uṭṭuqqet n yilsawen. Aẓeḍḍa-a ilul-d i wakk-n ad yerr tajmilt ass-a i ddula ed temdint n Tlaxcala ay yeγlin γef ljal n tuccḍa ay tga, asmi ay tga laman deg umenkud –win n Yespenyuliyen - akk-n ad nnaγen mgal n umenkud niḍen iḍeεfen – win n Nahua -, maca armi ay iεedda lawan ay ukin ed tuccḍa-nsen, ukin yiwen ur yessefk ad yeg laman deg yimenkuden – akk-n bγun ilin – imi ay sseqdacen wid yellan seddaw n tecḍaḍt-nsen d allal kan i wakk-n ad ssiwḍen γer yeswan-nsen. Imsuqqlen igraγlanen n Tlaxcala ttnadin ad ṣ̣eḥḥen tuccḍa n Tlaxcala, tin ay d-yeglan s nnger-nnes, γef way-nni ay fkan isem n ddula-a i uẓeḍḍa-nsen.

Imsuqqlen n Tlaxcala ttamnen s lḥeqq ay sεan Wiyaḍ akk-n ad ilin, ttamnen yessefk ad nefhem timuγliwin n wiyaḍ, yerna i lmend n way-a ay qeddcen i wakk-n ad kksen ḍḍabeε-nni n umenkud (empire) ay tesεa tanglizit, s s tsuqqilt n way-n d-ttarun yimura (écrivains), idemmayen (penseurs), ifeγlayen (caricaturistes) ed yimeγnasen (militants) s yilsawen ur ten-yejji yiles n umenkud ad d-banen. Iḍrisen (textes) n wi akk ad d-ttussuqqlen γer wakk ilsawen wuγur nezmer ad ten-id-nessuqqel (ula d tanglizit), yerna imsuqqlen n Tlaxcala ad jjen wid ur nessawal tanglizit ad ssnen ay-n d-ttarun wid yessawalen s tanglizit maca rran-ten deg rrif, ur yettwassen way-n d-uran neγ yewεeṛ akk-n t-id-afen medden.

Tanglizit, γas teqqel d iles n ussiweḍ n tmussni i deg umaḍal akk yerna zuna tettgensis-d (représenter) amaḍal-a s lekmal-nnes, timγur tezmert-nnes armi ay teqqel tettbeddil yerna tneγγ ṛṛuḥ n yilsawen ed yidelsan niḍen war ma tcaweṛ imawlan-nsen. Imsuqqlen n Tlaxcala umnen nezmer ad nernu wid yeṭṭfen awal yerna ugin ad as-brun yerna ssaramen ad sneqsen seg ljehd n taγect n wid ur nejji tuγac n yilsawen niḍen ad d-banent s werfad n taγect n yineggura-a, i wakk-n amaḍal-a ur tettili yiwet kan n tezmert ara t-iḥekmen, wanag aṭas, yerna ur yessawal s yiwen kan n yiles, wanag s waṭas n yilsawen, i wakk-n aṭṭuqqet n tzemmar ed yilsawen ad yili am uṭṭuqqet n leṣ̣naf n yimexluqen imuddiren deg umaḍal.

Llsas ay teḍfer Tlaxcala n wextiri n yeḍrisen (textes) d win ay ibedden γef wazalen n Tseγrut Tagraγlant n Yizerfan n Wemdan, d tin iqeddcen i lmend n uqader ikemlen n yizerfan ed wazal n wemdan. Imsuqqlen n Tlaxcala zgan-d mgal n lεeqliyya taserdasit (militaire), mgal n temnukda (impérialisme) yerna mgal n ussemḍel ”anyulibiṛali” (mondialisation ”néolibérale”). Ssaramen seg wul ad tili talwit gar wakk ilsawen ed yidelsan yerna akk-n ma llan ad ilin εedlen. Ur ttamnen s wemyewwat gar tγermiwin wala s ṭṭrad-a amnukdan (impérialiste) mgal n rrebrab ay γef d-ssawalen kra ass-a. Imsuqqlen n Tlaxcala zgan-d mgal n temsirit (racisme) ed lebni n leṣ̣war ed ẓẓrubat n trisiti – ama d wid n tidet neγ d wid n yiles – ur nettajja imdanen ed yilsawen n umaḍal ad wliwlen s tlelli. Ttnadin ad snernin aεuzzu, asteεṛef ed uqader n Wayeḍ, yerna bγan ur yettili Wayeḍ-nni d taγawsa n Umezruy (ttarix) wanag ad yeqqel d win ay yettekkayen deg tlalit n Umezruy, d win ay iεedlen ed win ay t-yettarun. Leqdic n yemsuqqlen n Tlaxcala d win yellan d awizi (bénévole), ttgen-t baṭel. Akk tisuqqilin ay ttgen wid yettekkan deg Tlaxcala zemren ad tent-awin medden, ad tent-id-ssuffγen anda ay asen-yehwa ma yella ur tent-sseqdacen i ussekcem n yedrimen, maca yessefk ad d-bedren seg wansi ay ten-id-wwin ed wanwa ay tent-yuran. 

A imsuqqlen n wakk ilsawen, qqnem-d yid-neγ tasem-d ad neddukkel ! Inedbalen n yideggen (webmasters) ed yemttekkiyen n yeblugen (blogs) n wakk timuγliwin, ay yeddan ed way-n nebγa ed way-n ay aγ-iceγben, arum-aγ-d !

 

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Maci s zzheṛ kan ay nefren ass n 21 Fuṛaṛ akk-n ad yili d ass n ussuffeγ n Teskint-nneγ. Deg yiseggasen n 1950, 1960 ed 1970, 21 Fuṛaṛ yella d ass amaḍlan (mondial) mgal n temharsa (colonialisme) ed temnukda (impérialisme).

”Win ay yessutturen, deg wakal-nnes, ala ciṭṭ-nni n wakal ay deg ara as-γzen i temḍelt-nnes, winna yuklal ad as-nsel, ad as-nḥesses, yerna yuklal ad neg laman deg way-n d-yeqqar”. Augusto Cesar Sandino yettwanγa de wass n 21 Fuṛaṛ, 1934, deg Nicaragua, s lameṛ n Somoza, win yellan itteddu ad yeqqel d asnaraf (dictateur) n tmurt-a. Medden semman-as i Sandino : Ajiniṛal n Yemdanen Ilelliyen, yerna γef leḥsab n leεqudat n lehna ay yestenya yiwen wass sdat ad yemmet, yeqbel ad yejbed iman-nnes γer yiwet n tenmiragt (coopérative) n yifellaḥen, deg ugafa (nord) n Nicaragua.

Ass-a, Sandino yeqqel d netta ay d tala n tfernant (patriotisme) n Yinikaṛagwiyen, yerna d netta ay d azamul n nnif n tmurt-nsen, d win ay yennuγen yerna yebded deg wudem n yiserdasen (lεeskeṛ) imarikaniyen ay d-yegren iman-nsen deg tmurt-nnes yerna ṭṭfen-tt. Sandino yella d imḍebber n ”Yigen [armée] n Temḥaddit n Lḥeṛma n Tmurt”, d igen ay d-ijemεen ifellaḥen ed yiqeddacen ay yennuγen mgal n temnukda (impérialisme) ed tesnaraft (dictature) s yijenwiyen, dduzan n leqdic, ibeckiḍen iṣ̣edden ed lbumbat ay d-gan s tebwaḍin n uqezdir yeccuṛen d iẓra ed yiceqqufen n wuzzal. Iserdasen-nnes qrib ssawḍen ad d-sseγlin ula d ṛṛublanat n weεdaw s yeẓra, maca ay-n yugaren akk ay-a netta imenγi-nsen gan-t s tuṭṭfa deg wazalen-nsen ed leḥmala tameqrant ay ḥemmlen tamurt-nsen, γas kkan-d γef yiberdan iweεṛen, ed tiytiwin n yiserdasen inikaṛagwiyen yeddukklen ed yigen amarikani – imi iserdasen imarikaniyen sqedcen wid n Nicaragua, yerna igen amarikani i yiman-nnes kan yella yejhed ahat meyya n tikkal ugar win n yigen n Sandino. Asmi ay yebded γer yidis n yiẓawaliyen ed wid umi ccan tadwin-nsen deg Nicaragua ed Temrikt Talatinit, Sandino yessken-d, yerna s tirrugza, amek ay zemren yifellaḥen ad d-snekren ed ad ssuddsen (oragniser) imenγi i wakk-n ad bedden deg wudem n lbaṭel ed ad ssiwḍen γer uzarug (indépendance) n tmurt-nsen.

Deg wass n 21 Fuṛaṛ 1944, mi d-ukin kan yimezdaγen n Paris, ufan-d inazalen (affiches) izewwaγen ay d-yettxebbiren s tmenγiwt n 23 n ”yirebraben” : deg tidet, imdanen-a llan d imaslaḍen (membres) n Francs-Tireurs et Partisans - Main-d'ouvre Immigrée de Paris [FTP-MOI], d yiwet seg tuddsiwin (organisations) timezwura ay ibedden deg wudem n Yinaziyen asmi ay d-kecmen γer wakal n Fṛansa. Imḍebber n terbaεt-a, Missak Manouchian, d Aṛmini n 36 n yiseggasen, ay d-imenεen seg Ussenger n Waṛminiyen deg Tteṛk, yerna yella d iminig deg Fṛansa. Mi akk-n ay iεedda deg deg ccṛeε n yiserdasen (lεeskeṛ) inaziyen, ixabiten-nni Ifṛensisen luqben-t, nnan-as ”a amitak” [d tisellqebt ay yes ttlaqaben ibeṛṛaniyen], maca Manouchian yerra-asen : ”Kenwi d awṛat kan ay d-tweṛtem taγlent (nationalité) tafṛensist, wanag nekk uklaleγ-tt”.

Deg wass n 21 Fuṛaṛ 1952, d luluf n yinelmaden, aggagen (intellectuels) ed yiqeddacen ay d-yennejmaεen deg Dhaka, ay yellan imir-nni d tamaneγt n Pakistan Tacerqit, tin yeqqlen ass-a d Bangladesh, i wakk-n ad d-sseknen tigin-nsen imi Pakistan tḥettem-d turdut (ourdou) d nettat kan ay d iles aγelnaw awḥid i wakk Ibengaliyen. Mi akk-n ay εerḍen yinelmaden ad ddun, imsulta (ibulisen) qerrsen yerna nγan ṛebεa seg-sen ass-nni, ed rnan nγan, ma ulac, sebεa niḍen deg sin-nni wussan ay d-iḍefren. Amussu-a (mouvement) yeqqel yegla-d s tnekra n wegdud s lekmal-nnes yerna ay-a yessaweḍ armi ay temsebḍa Bangladesh γef Pakistan, deg 1971, sdeffir n tedyanin n ccwal ay deg Pakistan teεreḍ ad tesseqdec assizeg n weγref (épuration ethnique) ed tga i lmend n way-a kra seg tγawsiwin tucmitin akk deg lqern wis εecrin, s uεiwen n uselway amarikani n yimir-nni, Nixon. Seg yimir-nni, qqlen yimezdaγen n Bangladesh ttarran tajmilt i way-n umi qqaren Ekushey, Ass n Yimeγrusen (ccuhada), yal aseggas deg wass 21 Fuṛaṛ, d ass ay deg ttεahaden iman-nsen akk-n ad gen leqrar i tgemmi (patrimoine) tameṛkantit n yiles abengali (awal n Ekush lmeεna-s 21, ma Ekusheylmeεna-s Wis 21). Deg useggas n 2000, UNESCO terra ass n 21 Fuṛaṛ d Ass Agraγlan n Yiles Ayemmat (langue maternelle), akk-n ad rren tajmilt i umussu ay d-inekren deg Bangladesh. (Yettwarna deg wass n 21 Fuṛaṛ 2009).

”Yewweḍ-d lawan n yimeγrusen (ccuhada), yerna ma yella ula d nekk ad iliγ d yiwen seg-sen, ay-a ad yili i lmend n tegmat, yerna d tagmat kan ay izemren ad d-tessukkes tamurt-a”. D wi ay d awalen ineggura ay d-yenna Malcolm X sdat ad t-nγen deg yiwet n temlilit deg Harlem, deg wass n 21 Fuṛaṛ 1965. Wid ay t-yenγan d 3 n yemdanen yettekkan deg tuddsa (organisation) n Nation of Islam, d tuddsa ay seg yeffeγ Malcolm deg 1963 i wakk-n ad d-yessebded Tuddsa n Tdukli Tafriqit-Tamarikanit. Deg Yebrir 1966, wid ay t-yenγan ḥekmen-asen s lḥebs s teγzef n tudert, maca wid ay iḍebbren deg tmenγiwt-nnes – Imḍebbren n Umenkud (empire) – akk-n tḍerru s umata, yiwen ur ten-iεaqeb.

Malcolm X, win yettwassnen daγen s yisem n El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, isem-nnes aneṣ̣li netta d Malcolm Little. Yella yesεa 39. Sdat ad yemmet, yedda γer Mekka akk-n ad d-iḥijj, dγa din ay yessen tamγreḍt (universalité) mi akk-n ay yemlal ed lḥejjaj ay d-yusan seg yal ljens. Yiwet seg ssebbat ay t-yejjan ad yemsebḍu ed tuddsa n Nation of Islam netta d asmi ay yeẓra tuddsa-a tella tetteddu akk-n ad temciweṛ ed tuddsa n Ku Klux Klan i wakk-n iberkanen ad d-sbedden ddula deg wenẓul n Yiwunak Yeddukklen n Temrikt, swaswa kan akk-n iga win ay d-yesbedden taṣ̣ehyunit, Theodor Herzel, asmi ay yessutter seg yimeqranen akk seg gar wid ikeṛhen Udayen akk-n ad t-εawnen deg leqdic-nnes i lmend n ussebded n ddula tudayt. Malcolm ur yelli yezmer ad yeqbel amεiwen am wa, ladγa imi baba-s s timmad-nnes d Ku Klux Klan ay t-yenγan.

Deg wass-a n wesmekti, neεzem ad nessers Tlaxcala seddaw n tejmilt ed yiseγ n tlata-a n yimeγnasen (militants) ay yennuγen akk-n ad d-rren azal i yiγerfan (ccuεub), Augusto Cesar Sandino, Missak Manouchian ed Malcolm X.

Deg tallunt (espace) n Internet, ass n 21 Fuṛaṛ, 2006, d ass agraɣlan n yiles ayemmat.




 


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