Some thoughts and advice for our students and all students
Various Authors - مؤلفين مختلفين - Auteurs divers- AAVV-d.a.
We are scholars and teachers at Princeton, Harvard, and Yale who have some thoughts to share and advice to offer students who are headed off to colleges around the country. Our advice can be distilled to three words:
Think for yourself.
Now, that might sound easy. But you will find—as you may have discovered already in high school—that thinking for yourself can be a challenge. It always demands self-discipline and these days can require courage.
In today’s climate, it’s all-too-easy to allow your views and outlook to be shaped by dominant opinion on your campus or in the broader academic culture. The danger any student—or faculty member—faces today is falling into the vice of conformism, yielding to groupthink.
At many colleges and universities what John Stuart Mill called “the tyranny of public opinion” does more than merely discourage students from dissenting from prevailing views on moral, political, and other types of questions. It leads them to suppose that dominant views are so obviously correct that only a bigot or a crank could question them.
Since no one wants to be, or be thought of as, a bigot or a crank, the easy, lazy way to proceed is simply by falling into line with campus orthodoxies.
Don’t do that. Think for yourself.
Thinking for yourself means questioning dominant ideas even when others insist on their being treated as unquestionable. It means deciding what one believes not by conforming to fashionable opinions, but by taking the trouble to learn and honestly consider the strongest arguments to be advanced on both or all sides of questions—including arguments for positions that others revile and want to stigmatize and against positions others seek to immunize from critical scrutiny.
The love of truth and the desire to attain it should motivate you to think for yourself. The central point of a college education is to seek truth and to learn the skills and acquire the virtues necessary to be a lifelong truth-seeker. Open-mindedness, critical thinking, and debate are essential to discovering the truth. Moreover, they are our best antidotes to bigotry.
Merriam-Webster’s first definition of the word “bigot” is a person “who is obstinately or intolerantly devoted to his or her own opinions and prejudices.” The only people who need fear open-minded inquiry and robust debate are the actual bigots, including those on campuses or in the broader society who seek to protect the hegemony of their opinions by claiming that to question those opinions is itself bigotry.
So don’t be tyrannized by public opinion. Don’t get trapped in an echo chamber. Whether you in the end reject or embrace a view, make sure you decide where you stand by critically assessing the arguments for the competing positions.
Think for yourself.
Good luck to you in college!
Paul Bloom Brooks and Suzanne Ragen Professor of Psychology Yale University
Elizabeth Bogan Senior Lecturer in Economics Princeton University
Nicholas Christakis Sol Goldman Family Professor of Social and Natural Science Yale University
Carlos Eire T. Lawrason Riggs Professor of History and Religious Studies Yale University
Maria E. Garlock Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Co-Director of the Program in Architecture and Engineering Princeton University
David Gelernter Professor of Computer Science Yale University
Robert P. George McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence and Director of the James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions Princeton University
Mary Ann Glendon Learned Hand Professor of Law Harvard University
William Happer Cyrus Fogg Brackett Professor of Physics, Emeritus Princeton University
Robert Hollander Professor of European Literature and French and Italian, Emeritus Princeton University
Joshua Katz Cotsen Professor in the Humanities and Professor of Classics Princeton University
Thomas P. Kelly Professor of Philosophy Princeton University
Sergiu Klainerman Eugene Higgins Professor of Mathematics Princeton University
Jon Levenson Albert A. List Professor of Jewish Studies Harvard University
John B. Londregan Professor of Politics and International Affairs Princeton University
Uwe Reinhardt James Madison Professor of Political Economy and Public Affairs Princeton University
Michael A. Reynolds Associate Professor of Near Eastern Studies Princeton University
Jacqueline C. Rivers Lecturer in Sociology and African and African-American Studies Harvard University
Marta Tienda Maurice P. During Professor in Demographic Studies and Professor of Sociology and Public Affairs, Woodrow Wilson School; and Director, Program of Latino Studies Princeton University
Noël Valis Professor of Spanish Yale University
Tyler VanderWeele Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatisticsand Director of the Program on Integrative Knowledge and Human Flourishing Harvard University
Adrian Vermeule Ralph S. Tyler, Jr. Professor of Constitutional Law Harvard University
Keith E. Whittington William Nelson Cromwell Professor of Politics Princeton University